IX. Redox Signaling in Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Stem Cells. Excerpt:
C. Signaling pathways in cancer stem cells
In addition to the efflux multidrug transporters, several crucial signaling pathways have been elucidated for cancer stem cell biology, including Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, sonic hedgehog, Bmi-1, the Hox family, and PTEN (161). Here, only the pathways that are most relevant to multidrug resistance are discussed.X. Therapeutic Opportunities for Cancer Stem Cells. Final paragraph of this section:
Because cancer stem cells share many common features with those found in normal stem cells, caution must be exercised to avoid harming the normal stem cells (such as those in the bone marrow) during treatment. As better understanding of the role of cancer stem cells in the evolution of drug resistance is reached, one can expect that better treatment modalities targeting cancer stem cells also will be developed.[The Author Manuscript in PMC is publicly accessible].